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Da Enquire al Semantic Web

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Responsabile Ufficio Italiano W3C
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56124 Pisa

Le Invasioni Tecnologiche

Come le nuove tecnologie cambiano il pensiero, la comunicazione e la scienza

Viaggio Telecom

Pisa, 19-21 maggio 2006



L' evoluzione del Web

Web connects people, applications, devices

Storia del Web in un colpo d' occhio
(versione pdf)

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

Photo of TBL

“To lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing protocols and guidelines that ensure long-term growth for the Web”

W3C: gli obiettivi a lungo termine

The WAI home page on a SP910 phone


In principio fu: Vannevar Bush e il Memex

1945: As We May Think (Atlantic Monthly)

bush2 memexlg

A memex is a device in which an individual stores his books, records and communications and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory.

The memex "affords an immediate step, however, to associative indexing, the basic idea of which is a provision whereby any item may be caused at will to select immediately and automatically another. This is the essential feature of the memex. The process of tying two items together is the important thing."

L’invenzione del web

Un processo di accrescimento, non la soluzione lineare di una serie di problemi ben definiti.

Alcuni riferimenti:

ENQUIRE: qui puoi trovare tutto ...

I genitori di Tim Berners-Lee avevano una copia del libro di epoca Vittoriana. Tim ne aveva ricevuto un' altra copia in regalo dal suo padrino.

Staying in a House without Staff

It is for the guest to be as unobtrusively helpful to host and hostess. The simplest thing is to ask exactly how you may do this and also remember that there are times when even the most saught-after guest may get in the way of the routine domestic chores - it is often easier, for example, to opt for breakfast in bed while the hostess copes with the early morning routine.

In any household (even that of a millionaire), the thoughtful guest does not make free with the establishment's drinks, cigarettes, postal and telephone facilities, nor does he or she demand numerous additional services from the staff.

World Wide Web: la proposta originaria

Nel 1989 Tim Berners-Lee propose il World Wide Web

image of tim b-l original web proposal

Tre concetti essenziali

Universal Resource Identifier: cosa significa come indirizzo.
È l' innovazione più fondamentale del Web.
Qualunque programma Web lo utilizza quando segue un link.
Una volta che un documento ha un URI, può essere memorizzato su un server e ritrovato da un browser.
Non esiste un archivio centralizzato di URI.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol: la sequenza con cui i computer interagiscono e si scambiano informazioni.
La format negotiation permette la coesistenza di tutti i tipi di formato.
Hypertext Markup Language: se due computer usano lo stesso software per rappresentare i dati, possono scambiarli in modo nativo, altrimenti, li possono tradurre in HTML.
HTML descrive la struttura, non la presentazione.

Come talvolta succede …



Una riflessione

“ The people who built the Internet and Web have a real appreciation of the value of individuals and the value of systems in which individuals play their role, with both a firm sense of their own identity and a firm sense of some common good.
I was very lucky, in working at CERN, to be in an environment that Unitarian Universalists and physicists would equally appreciate: one of mutual respect, and of building something very great through collective effort that was well beyond the means of any one person - without a huge bureaucratic regime.
The system produced a weird and wonderful machine, which needed care to maintain, but could take advantage of the ingenuity, inspiration, and intuition of individuals in a special way. That, from the start, has been my goal for the World Wide Web. ”

(Tim Berners-Lee - Weaving the Web, p. 208-209)


I limiti attuali

I have a dream ...

"The entertainment system was belting out the Beatles "We Can Work It Out" when the phone rang. When Pete answered, his phone turned the sound down by sending a message to all other local devices that had a volume control. His sister, Lucy, was on the line from the doctor's office: "Mom needs to see a specialist and then has to have a series of physical therapy sessions. Biweekly or something. I'm going to have my agent set up the appointments." Pete immediately agreed to share the chauffeuring.

At the doctor’s office, Lucy instructed her Semantic Web agent through her handheld Web browser. The agent promptly retrieved information about ...”

(From: The Semantic Web, by Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler and Ora Lassila, Scientific American, May 2001)

Il Semantic Web ...

immagine dei livelli del semantic web

Cosa sono i metadati?

Perché i metadati?

Il Data Model RDF: gli statement

Il concetto fondamentale:

Una risorsa è sempre individuata da un Universal Resource Identifier (URI), e può essere:

Un esempio di statement

La persona identificata dal Codice Fiscale SGNRST99A99X111Y has Name Oreste Signore, Email, e Affiliation C.N.R.. La risorsa has Author questa persona.

RDF structured property diagram

Un esempio: un oggetto d' arte

(vedi per ulteriori dettagli) epitaphios

La sua rappresentazione basata su una ontologia formale
(ringrazio Giovanni Tummarello):

Grafi e Web: prima di RDF

before rdf

Per le macchine: milioni di risorse collegate ...

... nessuna informazione sul tipo di risorse e di relazioni

Grafi e Web: dopo RDF

after rdf

Per le macchine: milioni di risorse collegate ...

... con informazioni sul tipo di risorse e di relazioni

RDF : un linguaggio per descrivere il significato delle risorse

È possibile ricercare le risorse in base alle loro proprietà


Web Ontology Language (OWL) è la W3C Recommendation

Ontologie sul Web

Il Semantic Web (ricapitolando)

Molte delle tecnologie necessarie sono già disponibili

La conoscenza può essere espressa ed esportata utilizzando un formalismo interoperabile

Alcuni problemi

  • definizione
  • condivisione
  • armonizzazione
Grafi RDF
  • memorizzazione
  • query
  • autenticazione (signing graphs)
  • ripudio
  • policy aware web

Solo un sogno?


Web for Everyone

“The Web is more a social creation than a technical one. I designed it for a social effect - to help people work together - and not as a technical toy. The ultimate goal of the Web is to support and improve our weblike existence in the world.”
(Tim Berners-Lee - Weaving the Web, p. 123)

Chi è il padrone del Web?

People have sometimes asked me whether I am upset that I have not made a lot of money from the Web. In fact, I made some conscious decisions about which way to take my life. These I would not change - though I am making no comment on what I might do in the future. What does distress me, though, is how important a question it seems to be to some. This happens mostly in America, not Europe. What is maddening is the terrible notion that a person's value depends on how important and financially successful they are, and that is measured in terms of money. That suggests disrespects for the researchers across the globe developing ideas for the next leaps in science and technology.
Core in my upbringing was a value system that put monetary gain well in its place, behind things like doing what I really want to do. To use net worth as a criterion by which judge people is to set out our children's sights on cash rather than on things that will actually make them happy.

It can be occasionally frustrating to think about things my family could have done with a lot of money. But in general I'm fairly happy to let other people be in the Royal Family role (as it were), as long as they don't abuse the power they have as a result. It's not as if I can just make decisions that change the Web ... but I can try to get an entire industry to do it. My priority is to see the Web develop in a way that will hold us in good stead for a long time. If someone tries to monopolize the Web - by, for example, pushing a proprietary variation of network protocols - they're in for fight.

[da Weaving the Web, p. 107-108]

Sono orgoglioso di ...

Tim Berners-Lee e Oreste Signore al decennale del W3C (Boston, dicembre 2004)


Non chiedetevi:
cosa può fare il web per me?
cosa posso fare io per il Web?
W3C Member Logo … e il supporters program

Grazie per l' attenzione


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